Initial examination of glass, Forensic Science Communications. The bottom layer is typically about a quarter of the total height of the column. - Table of Contents - Meetings and Conferences - Editors - Back Issues, - About FSC - Instructions for Authors - Search, Glass is technically defined as “The inorganic product of fusion which has cooled to a rigid condition without crystallizing” (ASTM C162-05). All evidence must characterised, explained and examined. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. (Federal Bureau of Investigation [FBI] 2006). 2002). Unit code and title, assignment title, your name, student number, campus and tutor’s name. 2002), Refractive index varies with wavelength of light and temperature (Bloss 1961). Allen, T. J., Cox, A. R., Barton, S., Messam, P., and Lambert, J. Allen, T. J., Hoefler, K., and Rose, S. J. (2001) examined 776 pairs of footwear and found that 5.9% had glass embedded in the sole, 1.9% had glass on the uppers, and only 0.3% had glass on both the soles and uppers. Immersion methods are used to measure refractive index in some laboratories. (1999) found one glass fragment each on only 6 of 2008 upper garments examined. For example, not all glass fragments will possess original surfaces. I. Each technique has its advantages and disadvantages. This must accurately reflect the content of your report and must be generated automatically in Microsoft Word with page numbers. These pieces of glass helped crime scene investigators figure out what happened. Richard Saferstein, Ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 2002, pp. Catterick, T. and Hickman, D. A. Until recently, density measurements required the use of hazardous liquids, such as bromoform (Koons 2002). Expert reporting guideline, Forensic Science Communications [Online]. Glass analysis is used by both the glass industry and the forensic community. Various fabrication methods can be employed after the glass is formed, for example, tempering or lamination. Locke, J. and Unikowski, J. In: Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Arbab, M., Shelestak, L. J., and Harris, C. S. Value-added flat-glass products for the building, transportation markets, part 1. Color assessment is performed visually against a white background in natural light with the particle on edge. 4th ed. Allen, T. J., Cox, A. R., Barton, S., Messam, P., and Lambert, J. Survey of the distribution of glass on clothing, Journal of the Forensic Science Society (1992) 32:333–348. Each layer is added to the prior very slowly using a pipette so as to not allow mixture at the interface. In one study, on a data set consisting of three replicate measurements each for 209 specimens, the range-overlap test discriminated all specimens, and all other statistical analysis-based tests performed worse (Koons and Buscaglia 2002). John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1994. Reflective writing Over the next several years, the concentrations of additional elements in glass by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrophotometry were determined, and 6 to 10 element classification schemes based on comparison with a glass database divided into nine product categories were developed (Hickman 1981; Hickman et al. In: Guidelines for Forensic Science Laboratories. Forensic science, also known as criminalistics, is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.. Forensic scientists collect, preserve, and analyze scientific evidence during the course of an investigation. Misture, S. T. X-ray scattering used to characterize surfaces and thin films, The Glass Researcher: Bulletin of Glass Science and Engineering (1999) 9:5,19. Pearson, E. F., May, R. W., and Dabbs, M. D. G. Glass and paint fragments found in men’s outer clothing—Report of a survey, Journal of Forensic Sciences (1971) 16:283–300. Density is mass per unit volume. e. Mass of water displaced = Volume of water displaced = Volume of piece of glass. Unpublished report. 169–196. Glass fractures. Lambert, J. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. The precision of digital density meters is 0.0001 g/cm, Another relative method for measuring density is the sink-float comparator method. A forensic glass analysis is typically a comparison of two or more glass fragments in an attempt to determine if they originated from different sources. A succinct overview of the report. Locke, J. and Unikowski, J. Kerr, P. F. Optical Mineralogy. It is not always possible to assess every potential point of comparison in each glass specimen because not all fragments transferred, recovered, and submitted for forensic analysis will express every feature. Varshneya, A. K. Fundamentals of Inorganic Glasses. Gemological Institute of America, Carlsbad, California, 1998. In: Federal Bureau of Investigation. You should continually demonstrate that you have maintained integrity throughout your investigation. Maynard Muntzing Famous Criminal Cases Additionally, there can be secondary transfer of glass between people and objects, such as when glass is transferred from a person to a vehicle seat (Allen et al. Broken glass at a crime scene is a very important type of forensic evidence. Article/book review The number of glass fragments generated by a break is independent of the size and thickness of the window but increases with greater damage to the glass (Locke and Unikowski 1992). The variation in glass properties between types of glasses is pronounced (Boyd et al. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. For glass, relative dispersion, or dispersive power, is used to quantify dispersion (Koons et al. Academic Press, Boston, Massachusetts, 1994. Study.com has thousands of articles about every McCrone, W. C. and Hudson, W. The analytical use of density gradient separations. Al Capone A., and Zoro, J. Neutron activation analysis also requires the use of a nuclear reactor, which is not readily available to most forensic laboratories. Thesis writing Each report will be unique and presented in its own way. Law Detection limits for most elements by ICP-OES are on the order of 0.01 μg/g; and for ICP-MS, 0.001 μg/g. Most methods of glass composition analysis are destructive. Hughes, J. C., Catterick, T., and Southeard, G. The quantitative analysis of glass by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Great assistance by guys from ⇒⇒⇒WRITE-MY-PAPER.net ⇐⇐⇐, www.HelpWriting.net is a really good site. 2002). Schmitt, R. A. and Smith, V. Identification of origin of glass by neutron activation analysis in a forensic case. Koons, R. D., Peters, C. A., and Rebbert, P. S. Comparison of refractive index, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry for forensic characterization of sheet glass fragments, Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry (1991) 6:451–456. The “Trace Evidence Unit: Casework Assignment and Review Procedures” section of the Trace Evidence Unit Quality Assurance Manual (2006) states: A glass association is defined as two or more glass samples that can be fracture fitted together, or that exhibit indistinguishable observable properties and/or range overlap in all measured properties. Email content from memory is recovered, breaching the user privacy. Samples adequately large for these methods are rarely encountered in forensic casework (Koons et al. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania. Dispersion is the change in refractive index with a change in wavelength of illumination.

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